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August 26-30, 1914: Annihilation at Tannenberg. They could keep control of their army because most of the local telephone operators remained at their switchboards, carefully tracking the motorcade. It was a catastrophic defeat for Russia, which suffered over 120, 000 casualties. He captured Seeben by mid-afternoon, but saved an advance on Usdau for the next day. Military historian Walter Elze wrote that a few months before his death Hindenburg finally acknowledged that Ludendorff had been in a state of panic that evening. It set the stage for the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes a week later, when the reinforced German Eighth Army confronted the Russian First Army. [27], François commenced his attack early on the 25th, with his 1st Infantry Division advancing towards Seeben, his 2nd Infantry division on its southern flank, and the rest of his corps arriving by train during the day. Germany entered World War I largely following the Schlieffen Plan. Browse 84 battle of tannenberg stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. "[11] The First Army was mobilized from the Vilno Military District, and consisted of four infantry corps, five cavalry divisions and an independent cavalry brigade. The German 1st Cavalry Division and some garrison troops of older men would remain as a screen just south of the eastern edge of the Königsberg defenses, facing Rennenkampf's First Army. [22] On 23 August they attacked the German XX Corps, which retreated to the Orlau-Frankenau line that night. Allied with France and Britain, Grand Duke Nicholas, the Russian commander, agreed to help relieve the French, under attack from Germany, with an offensive in East Prussia. The First Army would use the line that ran from Vilnius, Lithuania, to the border 136 km (85 mi) southeast of Königsberg. If the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) joined in accordance with their Allied treaty, they would fill the left flank. Blagoveschensky's 16th Infantry Division occupied Bischofsburg, while his 4th Infantry Division was north of Rothfliess, and his 4th Cavalry division was at Sensburg. [20] For the moment Samsonov would be opposed only by the forces he was already facing, XX Corps, mostly East Prussians who were defending their homes. I Corps on the German left was closest to the railway, so it would take the long route by train to support the right of XX Corps, while the other two German corps would march the shorter distance to XX Corps' left. The telegram relieving their former commanders came later. [44], A German monument commemorating the battle was completed in 1927 in Hohenstein. The First Cavalry Division with some older garrison troops would remain to screen Rennenkampf. Russian Leadership: Effect: The End of the War: Rennenkampf held a personal vendetta against Samsonov due to the conduct at the Battle of Mokden in 1905, which justified that he would not come to aid Samsonov in the future if he doesn't have to German Commander Pritwittz orders Erich joined the German general staff in 1894, at the age of 18, where he helped in the revision of the Schlieffen Plan. They were in a cauldron centered at Frogenau, west of Tannenberg, and throughout the day were relentlessly pounded by artillery. It brought considerable prestige to Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and his rising staff-officer Erich Ludendorff. Heinrici built up a reputation as the best defensive tactician in the German Army and was renowned for his tenacity. Many surrendered—long columns of prisoners jammed the roads away from the battleground. German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Li?ge, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the Battle of Tannenberg. Quotes #1 They already had been advancing for six days in sweltering heat without sufficient rest along primitive roads, averaging 24 km (15 mi) a day and had outrun their supplies. Macksen's 36th Infantry Division, on the right, and his 35th infantry Division, on the left, advanced towards Bischofsburg. August 1914 is a 1971 historical fiction novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.. XVII Corps and I Reserve Corps would march towards the left of XX Corps. "[6]:153,159–161, On the way back to headquarters Hoffmann received new radio intercepts. give, troops, gladly, long, know, used, right, place, victory. XX Corps had done well on another torrid day, but now was exhausted. (In 1910 Slavs had commemorated their triumph on the old battlefield. [28] Hoffmann, who had been an observer with the Japanese in Manchuria, tried to ease their nerves by telling how Samsonov and Rennenkampf had quarreled during that war, so they would do nothing to help one another. Little had been achieved during the day, when they had intended to spring the trap. He took lead of the war of the battle of Tannenberg. The German 3rd Reserve Division was also able to advance on the Russian XV Corps, forcing Samsonov to order a retreat to Neidenburg. On the left flank of Scholtz's XX Corps, Curt von Morgen's 3rd Reserve Division was ordered to advance onto Hohenstein, but held back out of concern that the Russian XV and XII Corps would threaten his left flank. For which reason, '101' has been produced on the basis of a silent structure. North of François, Scholtz's 37th and 41st Infantry Divisions, faced the Russian 2nd Infantry Division, which fell back with heavy losses. They met with Scholtz and his XX Corps staff on 24 August, and François on 25 August, where he was ordered to attack towards Usdau on 26 August. perfect, regimental, younger, officers, adore, him. [31], On the morning of 28 August the German commanders were motoring along the front when they were shown a report from an aerial observer that Rennenkampf's army was moving towards their rear. These two armies formed the Northwestern Front facing the Germans, under the command of Yakov Zhilinsky. Aug 26 In the year 1914 -9/10] Russian army attacks Austrian army in Galicia . To David Stevenson it was "a major victory but far from decisive",[39] because the Russian First Army was still in East Prussia. The Russian advance continued on the afternoon of 18 August and on the following day. [6]:192–194 On 29 August the troops from the Russian Second Army's center who were retreating south ran into a German defensive line. Klyuev's Russian XIII Corps was ordered to advance onto Allenstein. Only thus could we get a free hand to deal with the second enemy, Rennenkampf, who was even then plundering and burning East Prussia. Battle of Verdun Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff was a German Army officer, victor of Liège, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. He was acquitted of criminal charges for his role in the Nazis' unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch. The Germans suffered just 12,000 casualties out of the 150,000 men committed to the battle. "[6]:184–191, On 29 August, François' cavalry regiment reached Willenberg by evening, while his 1st Infantry Division occupied the road between Neidenburg and Willenberg. With Nikolai Kolyada, Josef Luszpinski, Jerzy Radlowsky. Scholtz's XX Corps, to the north, also advanced, though his 41st Infantry Division was badly mauled by Martos' Russian XV Corps, it held its ground, while the German 37th Infantry Division reached Hohenstein by the end of the day. The German official history estimated 50,000 Russian killed and wounded, which were never properly recorded. [9], According to Prit Buttar, "In addition to the fortifications amongst the Masurian Lake District, the Germans had built a series of major forts around Königsberg in the 19th century and had then modernised them over the years. He is the only man...who has any political sense. Apparently not pleased by this, he later gave tours of the area, noting, "This is where the Field Marshal slept before the battle, this is where he slept after the battle, and this is where he slept during the battle." The Eighth Army in East Prussia would go to war with barely 10 per cent of this total. It was reported that one of his corps was on the march through Angerburg. Maybe that helps explains why the Germans, who in the end were defeated in WWI, needed to turn this singular victory into something larger than life. Go and listen to him one day. [41], Hindenburg was hailed as an epic hero, Ludendorff was praised, but Hoffmann was generally ignored by the press. The total strength of the fully mobilised German Army in 1914 amounted to 1,191 battalions, the great majority of which would of course be deployed against France. The Russians had lost 350 big guns. At 20:23 Eighth Army telegraphed OHL that they would withdraw to West Prussia. Rennenkampf mistakenly reported that two of the German Corps had sheltered in the Königsberg fortifications. The crushing defeat occurred barely a month into the conflict, but it became emblematic of the Russian Empire’s experience in … The Germans found more resistance than anticipated, however, especiallyamong civilian snipers who fired on them from hidden positions.In retali… On 30 August the Russians remaining outside of the cauldron tried unsuccessfully to break open the snare. We had to annihilate him. Tannenberg, in other words, failed to pay real dividends. Tannenberg set Hindenburg and Ludendorff on the road to supreme power in the Second Reich—power they exercised with disastrous incompetence. However, they were met in the flank and rear by Belos's I Reserve Corps, and retreated in disarray. Erich, Ludendorff, sentimentalist, charge, issue, orders, win, crucial, victory. On their far left they knew that XVII Corps and I Reserve Corps were coming into action, but headquarters had learned little about their progress. He became the perfect regimental commander...the younger officers came to adore him. Their Russian allies in the East would have a massive army, more than 95 divisions, but their mobilization would inevitably be slower. The Second Army railway ran from Warsaw, Poland, to the border 165 km (103 mi) southwest of Königsberg. It was a disaster for the Russians, and is often called the greatest double-envelopment since Hannibal crushed the Romans at Cannae in 216BC. [14] They were opposed by a single reinforced German Corps, the XX, commanded by Lt. Gen. Friedrich von Scholtz. [24], On 24 August Hindenburg, Ludendorff and Hoffmann motored along the German lines to meet Scholtz and his principal subordinates, sharing the roads with panic-stricken refugees; in the background were columns of smoke from burning villages ignited by artillery shells. According to Prit Buttar, "In combination with his own strong desire to fight an offensive war featuring outflanking and encircling movements, Schlieffen went on to develop his plan for a sweeping advance through Belgium. Adding to their supply problems, the Russians deployed large numbers of cavalry and Cossacks; every day each horse needed ten times the resources that a man required. In an attempt to send reinforcements, Blagoveschensky split the 16th Infantry Division between Bischofsburg and Ramsau. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liège, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the Battle of Tannenberg. The battle is particularly notable for fast rail movements by the Germans, enabling them to concentrate against each of the two Russian armies in turn, and also for the failure of the Russians to encode their radio messages. This ideology was mooted in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. [6]:161–173, That evening the Eighth Army's staff was on edge. „In the middle of August I did not consider that the time had come for us to despair of a successful conclusion of the war. The battle was one of the largest battles in Medieval Europe and is regarded as the most important victory in the history of Poland, Belarus and Lithuania. Erich Ludendorff was considered the brains of the new German command. Mackensen's German XVII Corps continued pursuing the retreating Russians. Nonetheless, as long as the great battle in the West continued the outnumbered Germans had to remain on the defensive in the East, anticipating that the Russians would make another thrust from Poland against Germany, and because the Russians had bested the Austro-Hungarians in the Battle of Galicia; their allies would need help. Schlieffen was an ardent student of military history, and his strategic plan was inspired by the Battle of Cannae (216 bce), a pivotal engagement during the Second Punic War.At Cannae the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated a much larger Roman force with a successful double envelopment, turning the Roman army’s flanks and destroying it. Tags: I Corps was moving by the rail line, and Ludendorf had previously counter-ordered it further east, at Deutsch-Eylau, where it could support the right of XX Corps. He had come to take charge, to issue orders, to win a crucial victory. Battle of Tannenberg. Their artillery was devastating until they ran out of ammunition, then the Russians retired. François replied, "If it is so ordered, of course an attack will be made, and the troops will obviously have to fight with bayonets. "[26], Samsonov was concerned by the German resistance with their earlier advance, and aerial reconnaissance spotted the arrival of the German I Corps. The Battle of Tannenberg, also known as Second Battle of Tannenberg, was fought between Russia and Germany between 26 and 30 August 1914, the first month of World War I. The Russian supply of cable was insufficient to run telephone or telegraph connections from the rear; all they had was needed for field communications. It is surprising that misgivings filled many a heart, that firm resolution began to yield to vacillation, and that doubts crept in where a clear vision had hitherto prevailed? I Corps was moving over more than 150 km (93 miles) of rail, day and night, one train every 30 minutes, with 25 minutes to unload instead of the customary hour or two. Battle of Tannenberg. The two corps (I and VI) that had not been caught in the cauldron had been severely bloodied and were retreating back to Poland. However, his lack of maps to go with the minute details of Russian and German army moves was a real drawback. Back at headquarters Hindenburg told the staff, "Gentlemen. Tags: Based on this information Scholtz formed a new defensive flank along the Drewenz River, while his main line strengthened their defenses. Rennenkampf's most recent orders from Zhilinskiy were to continue due west, not turn south-westward towards Samsonov, who was instructed to continue his own drive northwest further away from Rennenkampf. Erich Ludendorff was a world renowned German general whose contribution in the victories of ‘Battle of Liège’ and the ‘Battle of Tannenberg’ was quite significant. His problems were compounded because an intercepted wireless message disclosed that the Russian II Army included five Corps and a cavalry division, and aerial scouts saw their columns marching across the frontier. Tags: [34][35], Samsonov's Second Army had been almost annihilated: 92,000 captured, 78,000 killed or wounded and only 10,000 (mostly from the retreating flanks) escaping. The Southwestern Front, facing the Austro-Hungarians in Galicia, was commanded by Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov. Browse 84 battle of tannenberg photo stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Hindenburg led him behind a nearby hedge, when they emerged Hindenburg calmly said that operations would continue as planned. While despair seized on those within the deadly ring, faint-heartedness paralyzed the energies of those who might have brought their release. [36] Sixty trains were required to take captured Russian equipment to Germany. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov. XVII Corps and I Reserve Corps would march towards the left of XX Corps. The memorial was built in a prominent place in a shape reminisc… Zhilinskiy and Rennenkampf each had one; Samsonov did not. The Russians were driven back and lost 3,000 men as prisoners, but I Corps was ordered by Prittwitz, who had not authorized the attack, to pull back to Gumbinnen to concentrate his forces. Quotes Erich Ludendorff (1865 – 1937). [23], Samsonov saw a wonderful opportunity because, as far as he was aware, both of his flanks were unopposed. The battle is at the center of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's novel August 1914, published in 1971. In the east, limited German forces would defend against any Russian attack until more forces became available from the west, fresh from victory over the French. Outcome German victory; Russian troops began to On August 26, Ludendorff ordered the attack on the Russian left wing, which caused an immediate Russian retreat. The Second Army, commanded by Alexander Samsonov, was mobilized from the Warsaw Military District, and consisted of five infantry corps and four cavalry divisions. A night march enabled one of François’ divisions to hit the Russian XX Corps' right flank at 04:00. The PC game Tannenberg (video game) released in 2017 is squad-based multiplayer first-person shooter set during World War I featuring the battle and several other engagements from the Eastern Front. The German right flank would advance to Neidenburg, while Below's I Reserve Corps advanced to Allenstein, and Mackensen's XVII Corps chased Blagoveschensky's retreating VI Corps. I will give up troops gladly as long as I know that they will be used in the right place to bring victory. I Corps was moving by the rail line, and Ludendorf had previously counter-ordered it further east, at Deutsch-Eylau, where it could support the right of XX Corps. Therefore, they relied on mobile wireless stations, which would link Zhilinskiy to his two army commanders and with all corps commanders. He pushed for the resumption of unlimited submarine warfare, which ultimately brought America into the conflict. I Corps and XX Corps would attack from Gilgenburg towards Neidenburg, while XVII Corps and I Reserve Corps attacked the Russian right flank. On the morning of 22 August their replacements, Col. Gen. Paul von Hindenburg and Maj. Gen. Erich Ludendorff, were notified of their new assignments. Tags: His artillery barrage was overwhelming, and soon he had taken the key town of Usdau. However, by then Moltke had already decided to replace both Prittwitz and his chief of staff, Alfred von Waldersee. It took place from August 23 - 30 in 1914. The battle of Tannenberg is still taught at war colleges around the world, and for good reason. Tags: The German XVII Corps and I Reserve Corps pushed the Russian right wing they had bloodied the day before further back. Educated in the cadet corps, Ludendorff … "[6]:148 The new commander had raised the stakes dramatically. Tags: The numbers were overwhelming; in perhaps as little as a month, the Russians could field around ten complete armies, more men than the Germans could muster on both fronts put together. The Russian official inquiry into the disaster blamed Zhilinskiy for not controlling his two armies. Prittwitz excitedly but inconclusively and repeatedly discussed the dreadful news with Moltke that evening on the telephone, shouting back and forth. German I Corps was on their left, XVII Corps commanded by Lt. Gen. August von Mackensen in the center and I Reserve Corps led by Gen. Otto von Below on the right. [13] They were attacked at Stallupönen by a division of the German I Corps under Lt. Gen. Hermann von François. Thefirst German troops crossed the border on the night of August 3, 1914,expecting to overtake the little nation quickly and to move on totheir main objective of France. The memorial embraced the Anglo/French concept of the Unknown Soldier. Hindenburg wrote and spoke of "we", and when questioned about the crucial tête-à-tête with Ludendorff after dinner on 26 August resolutely maintained that they had calmly discussed their options and resolved to continue with the encirclement. Hindenburg met one captured Russian corps commander that day, another on the day following. One half of the German encirclement was complete by the end of the day, as Ludendorff wrote, "The enemy front seemed to be breaking up... We did not have a clear picture of the situation with individual units. German film director Heinz Paul made a film, Tannenberg, about the battle, shot in East Prussia in 1932. It was a resounding victory for the German army and proved that they could defeat larger armies through superior tactics and training. Please set a username for yourself. XVII Corps had endured long marches in sweltering weather, but some men still had the energy to pursue on bicycles requisitioned from civilians. In this respect, too, the course of events at the Battle of Tannenberg confirmed the human and military experience of yore. At one stage the chief of staff of the corps directed artillery fire onto his own dwelling. [6]:145,154–155, Hindenburg summarized his strategy, "We had not merely to win a victory over Samsonov. The 16th Infantry division was ordered to move towards Allenstein, while the 16th Infantry Division was split between Lautern and Gross-Bössau. manwho, political, sense, listen, him, one, day, Tags: [32] Later radio intercepts confirmed Rennen kampf was still slowly advancing on Konigsberg. He ordered most of his units to the northwest, toward the Vistula, leaving only his VI Corps to continue north towards their original objective of Seeburg. Zhilinskiy ordered him to pursue vigorously. [6]:64,113, Communications would be a daunting challenge. The Battle of Tannenberg Line (German: Die Schlacht um die Tannenbergstellung; Russian: Битва за линию «Танненберг») or the Battle of the Blue Hills (Estonian: Sinimägede lahing) was a military engagement between the German Army Detachment Narwa and the Soviet Leningrad Front.They fought for the strategically important Narva Isthmus from 25 July–10 August 1944. Basil Gourko, commanding the Russian First Army Cavalry Division (and from 1916 to 1917 chief of the general staff), was told later that Samsonov did not know what was happening on his flanks because he was observing the action from a rise in the ground a distance from his wireless set and reports were not relayed to him. At Tannenberg the actual ratio of Russian to German troops was 29 to 16. Below's German I Reserve Corps engaged Klyuev's Russian XIII Corps west of Allenstein, and became isolated. Frustrating this plan was the Ru… Below, to the right of Macksen, advanced to cut the road between Bischofsburg and Wartenburg. Rather than report the loss of his army to Tsar Nicholas II, Samsonov disappeared in the woods that night and committed suicide. But there was no doubt that the battle was won. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(}} Site of the battle of Tannenberg, Germany. At noon he had telephoned Field Marshal von Moltke at OHL (Oberste Heeresleitung, Supreme Headquarters) to report that all was going well; that evening he telephoned again to report disaster. Ludendorff had delayed their marches for a day to rest while remaining in … That afternoon the Russian heavy artillery struck back—the German infantry fled in panic, their artillery limbered up and joined the stampede. Ludendorff announced that the attack on the Second Army must be broken off. Field Marshal Sir Edmund Ironside saw Tannenberg as the "… greatest defeat suffered by any of the combatants during the war". It was the Germans Army's greatest success of the war. In the center the Russians continued to strongly attack the German XX Corps and to move northwest from Allenstein. We overcame the inward crisis, adhered to our original intention, and turned in full strength to effect its realization by attack." [12] According the Prit Buttar, "Consequently, Samsonov concluded that he would have to take the risk of using uncoded radio messages."[6]:152. On his left, Mackensen's XVII Corps launched a vigorous frontal attack but the Russian infantry held firm. The Russians were spread out along a 60 mile front, moving slowly towards the Germans. However, Hindenburg countered by saying, "If the battle had gone badly, the name 'Hindenburg' would have been reviled from one end of Germany to the other." [37] Another estimate gives 30,000 Russians killed or wounded, with 13 generals and 500 guns captured.[38]. However, it was blown up in World War II by the Germans during their retreat from Prussia in January 1945.[45]. Hindenburg commander of German forces the war in August 1914. Both Russian armies were having serious supply problems; everything had to be carted up from the railheads because they could not use the East Prussian railway track, and many units were hampered by lack of field bakeries, ammunition carts and the like. After the initial round of war declarations, events unfoldedquickly as each side tried to position itself advantageously. Their armies are hastily organized and poorly equipped, lacking in transportation. Aug 26 Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg in the year 1914.. Aug 27 2nd day of battle at Tannenberg: German bombs Usdau in the year 1914.. Aug 27 On this day in history catherine Marshall, editor/writer . Consequently, its armies could be transported by rail only as far as the German border and could use Prussian railways only with captured locomotives and rolling stock. He did not have enough aircraft or skilled cavalry to detect the German buildup on his left. 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