the history of bees

  • A+
所属分类:未分类

Without ever banging an apocalyptic drum, Lunde paints an achingly pure picture of what happens if we fail to protect the bees, our biospheric conscience, our fragile, sacred spinners of gold.”—Jacquelyn Mitchard, “As a lover of honeybees and a fan of speculative fiction, I was doubly smitten by The History of Bees. Maja Lunde’s novel is an urgent reminder of how much our survival depends on those remarkable insects. The History of Bees is a dystopian told from the perspectives of three beekeepers. “The History of Bees” is not really the history of bees. When Tao’s young son is taken away by the authorities after a tragic accident, she sets out on a grueling journey to find out what happened to him. Into this busy field enters Maja Lunde’s novel The History of Bees. Lunde, a writer of children’s and young-adult books, pieces together a tale that … Home         EXCERPT         TIMELINE         Praise         Resources         For Book Clubs         Insta-Buzz. "The History of Bees is spectacular and deeply moving. Pick up New Observations on the Natural History of Bees by François Huber or Robbing the Bees by Holley Bishop from your local library. A History of Bees is a dark read, and yet it ends on a wavering note of optimism. China, 2098. Lunde has written ten books for children and young adults. The honeybee is a highly sophisticated insect that has evolved over millions of years. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins “the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb” (New York Times bestselling author Bryn Greenwood) that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins these three very different narratives into one gripping and thought provoking story that is just as much about the powerful relationships between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey.Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea.They are presently considered a clade, called Anthophila.There are over 16,000 known species of bees in seven recognized biological families. merchant, who sets out to build a new type of beehive—one that will give both him and his children honor and fame. It is also a gripping account of how—despite the cruelest losses—humanity may abide and individual families can heal.” —Jean Hegland. The History of Bees is about letting go and resisting the impulse to exert control over everything. Wasps are predators that feed insects to their young for protein and the ancestor of bees is a wasp that became vegetarian. 24.1 x 3 x 16.1 cm. In recent years Colony Collapse Disorder due to pesticide resistant mites have ravaged bee populations. Lunde has elegantly woven together a tale of science and science fiction, dystopia and hope, and the trials of the individual and the strengths of family. The first human beekeepers weren't "keepers" at all, but foragers of wild honey.In the Cueva de la Araña (Cave of the Spider) near Valencia, Spain, is a cave painting dating from 9,000 B.C.E. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins “the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb” (New York Times bestselling author Bryn Greenwood) that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. She lives with her husband and three children in Oslo. Must redeem within 90 days. This becomes clear on the first page, a chapter titled “Tao” and set in a district in Sichuan, China, in the year 2098. 1. The Gibb Brothers made their mark on the music world in the 1970s, becoming prime artists of the disco era.Their harmonies were infectious, their records memorable, and their production and songwriting skills highly praised. But such is the genius of debut novelist Maja Lunde that her tale of three eras—the long past, the tenuous present and the biologically damned future—is strung on the fragile hope of the survival of bees. In the spirit of Station Eleven and Never Let Me Go, this dazzling and ambitious literary debut follows three, generations of beekeepers from the past, present, and. Pollen is full of protein, starch, fats, and vitamins and bees feed their young a loaf of pollen mixed with nectar. Previous page. Tao hand paints pollen onto the fruit trees now that the bees have long since disappeared. Apiculture has been practiced in Europe and Asia throughout recorded history. Wasps are predators that feed insects to their young for protein and the ancestor of bees is a wasp that became vegetarian. Following three separate but interconnected timelines, Lunde shows us the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb.”. Scribner UK. “Imagine The Leftovers, but with honey” (Elle), and in the spirit of Station Eleven and Never Let Me Go, this “spectacular and deeply moving” (Lisa See, New York Times bestselling author) novel follows three generations of beekeepers from the past, present, and future, weaving a spellbinding story of their relationship to the bees—and to their children and one another—against the backdrop of an urgent, global crisis.England, 1852. … With which of these... 2. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins these three very different narratives into one gripping and thought-provoking story that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. … August 22, 2017 Most of us don’t think about bees that much. It’s been likened to Emily St. John Mandel’s 2014 sci-fi novel Station Eleven, with good reason. The narration is great, the three readers all have different accents which really helps to keep track if the changes of characters. Read Full Review >> Positive Tori Latham, The Atlantic The History of Bees, published in 2015, is the debut adult novel of Norwegian author Maja Lunde and seemed an appropriate choice for our first book review feature, given the subject matter!A dystopian novel centred around a future in which the bees have died out completely, The History of Bees is split into three separate narratives that take place during three separate points in history. The History Of Bees alternates between three perspectives: those of Tao, George, and William. To recap, bees first appeared perhaps 130 million years ago, and by 80 million years ago some had evolved a social lifestyle, for the earliest fossil is of a social stingless bee. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins “the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb” (New York Times bestselling author Bryn Greenwood) that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. Thank you for signing up, fellow book lover! Language: English. Stepping lightly between a 19th century British naturalist, a contemporary Ohio bee farmer, and a determined mother in a dystopian future China, Lunde dares to imagine the chaos our rapidly changing world invites, while finding order and hope in individual acts of care. For most of the time the honey bees kept in any country would be indigenous to the locality. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins these three very different narratives into one gripping and thought provoking story that is just as much about the powerful relationships between children and parents as it is about our very relationship … Norwegian author Lunde puts imagination and research to work in this message-driven novel set in a gloomy past, a doomed modernity, and a dystopian future. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The History of Bees: A Novel. Due to the definition of apiary as a location where hives are kept its history can be traced as far back as that of beekeeping itself. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are an insect that has not exactly been domesticated: but humans have learned how to manage them, by providing them with hives so we can more easily steal the honey and wax from them. Pollen is full of protein, starch, fats, and vitamins and bees feed their young a loaf of pollen mixed with nectar. And in the past several months, a scramble in California’s almond groves has given the world a taste of what may lie in store for food production if the widespread—and still puzzling—decimation of bee colonies continues.”. ISBN-10. The Popol Vuh , the sacred book of the mythology of the Maya, tells how the bee was born from an 'universal beehive' that represents paradise and that the gods sent the bees to earth to promote the spiritual elevation of mankind, removing him from ignorance and barbarism. Maja Lunde’s novel is an urgent reminder of how much our survival depends on those remarkable insects. Tell us what you like and we'll recommend books you'll love. The novel, which focuses on what happens when all the bees disappear, takes a unique approach to this potential ecological disaster. The Bee Gees were a music group formed in 1958, featuring brothers Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb.The trio were especially successful as a popular music act in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and later as prominent performers of the disco music era in the mid-to-late 1970s. THE HISTORY OF BEES by Maja Lunde ‧ RELEASE DATE: Aug. 22, 2017 Three interwoven tales from 1851, 2007, and 2098 tell the story of our dependency on bees. Joy Osmamski is really the star narrator in this, she did an excellent job but she does have the best character as … The following excerpt is Chapter X of the book The Histori of Bees, written by Charles Butler, published by William Turner, Oxford, 1634.It is STC 4194, and can be found on reel 658:2 on the Early English Text microfilms. The History of Bees: A Novel - Ebook written by Maja Lunde. The book describes a dystopian “When you think of coming to tears over a novel, “As a lover of honeybees and a fan of speculative, “Here is a story that is sweeping in scope but intimate,  resonates powerfully with our most pressing environmental concerns. George is a beekeeper fighting an uphill battle against modern farming, but hopes that his son can be their salvation. Digital products purchased from this site are sold by Simon & Schuster Digital Sales Inc. Don't miss our eBook deals starting at $0.99! Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 21 August 2018. ", – Laura McBride, author of 'ROUND MIDNIGHT and WE ARE CALLED TO RISE, Any use of an author photo must include its respective photo credit. 2. As a study at Yale University notes: “One of every three bites of food eaten worldwide depends on pollinators, especially bees, for a successful harvest. Lunde has elegantly woven together a tale of science and science fiction, dystopia and hope, and the trials of the individual and the strengths of family.”—Lisa See, New York Times bestselling author of The Tea Girl of Hummingbird Lane. Stepping lightly between a 19th century British naturalist, a contemporary Ohio bee farmer, and a determined mother in a dystopian future China, Lunde dares to imagine the chaos our rapidly changing world invites, while finding order and hope in individual acts of care.” —Laura McBride, “By turns devastating and hopeful, The History of Bees resonates powerfully with our most pressing environmental concerns. The oldest bee fossil was discovered in Myanmar. It's likely that the bee originated in the Far East. Free eBook offer available to NEW US subscribers only. “When you think of coming to tears over a novel, a story about beekeepers and honey is not your first thought. To learn more about this global crisis and join the fight to save the bees, check out the many resources at savebees.org. Would a world without bees                    be a world without us? It's likely that the bee originated in the Far East. The History of Bees imagines a world where bees no longer exist, food is in short supply, and humanity depends on the brute labor of hand pollination in order to sustain itself. Prior to this, the wind was the main sower of plant seed. Colony collapse disorder is real. The history of bees was my first ever audio book and I wasn't disappointed. In those early days, the bees were more like wasps, eating other insects rather than nectar and pollen. Book: The History of Bees Author: Maja Lunde Review by: Martin Richenhagen, Chairman, President, and CEO of AGCO Corporation Martin Richenhagen “As someone who has spent… This becomes clear on the first page, a chapter titled “Tao” and set in a district in Sichuan, China, in the year 2098. But such is the genius of debut novelist Maja Lunde that her tale of three eras—the long past, the tenuous present, and the biologically damned future—is strung on the fragile hope of the survival of bees. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins “the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb” (New York Times bestselling author Bryn Greenwood) that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. The Bee Gees are musical legends. The honeybee is a highly sophisticated insect that has evolved over millions of years. See full terms and conditions and this month's choices. Science suggests that bee colonies started to grow and spread with the growth and spread of flowering plants. Bees, wasps, and ants share a common ancestry and around 135 million years ago the family tree split. Publisher. In the last decade, more than 10 million beehives have been lost, nearly twice the normal rate of loss. Offer redeemable at Simon & Schuster's ebook fulfillment partner. The History of Bees by Norwegian author Maja Lunde is part of a newer category of literature called climate fiction. The History of Bees Maja Lunde Review by Thane Tierney. The History of Bees takes the reader on a journey through times when bees were plentiful (England 1852), in decline (Ohio, USA 2007) and nonexistent (China 2098). It's likely that the bee originated in the Far East. Maja Lunde is a Norwegian author and screenwriter. Ever since the Collapse, the world has had a problem. Here is a story that is sweeping in scope but intimate in detail. It was found encased in amber and has been dated as 100 million years old. clearly depicting a brave man climbing a tree to stick his hand directly into a beehive [source: Comunitat Valenciana].The prehistoric artist even sketched a few honeybees buzzing nearby. Following three separate but interconnected timelines, Lunde shows us the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb.”, – Bryn Greenwood, New York Times bestselling author of ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS, "I once sat sheltered while a swarm of bees the size of a house flew over me. The Collapse marks the mass extinction of bees across the globe so that plants can’t be pollinated anymore. It was found encased in amber and has been dated as 100 million years old. Dimensions. Plus, receive recommendations and exclusive offers on all of your favorite books and authors from Simon & Schuster. Tao hand paints pollen onto the fruit trees now that the bees have long since disappeared. Throughout history apiaries and bees have been kept for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe. On page 30, William’s mentor, Rahm, opines “One reproduces, has offspring, one instinctively puts their needs first,... 3. full terms and conditions and this month's choices, A Reader’s Guide to the Impending Apocalypse, 12 Perfectly Bodied Book-and-Wine Pairings, A 2019 Book-Lovers International Travel List, Summer Reading Recommendations from Off the Shelf, Enter for a Chance to Win a Year’s Worth of Book Club Books, Join Our Book Club and You Could Win 14 of Our Favorite Reads, Book Cover Image (jpg): The History of Bees. She has also written scripts for Norwegian television, including for the children’s series Barnas supershow (“The Children’s Super Show”), the drama series Hjem (“Home”) and the comedy series Side om Side (“Side by Side”). It is also a gripping account of how—despite the cruelest losses—humanity may abide and individual families can heal.”, – Jean Hegland, author of STILL TIME and INTO THE FOREST, “By turns devastating and hopeful, The History of Bees resonates powerfully with our most pressing environmental concerns. THE HISTORY OF BEES by Maja Lunde ‧ RELEASE DATE: Aug. 22, 2017 Three interwoven tales from 1851, 2007, and 2098 tell the story of our dependency on bees. Every parent and mentor in this book has a fixed vision for their child's or apprentice's future. It was found encased in amber and has been dated as 100 million years old. “The History of Bees” is not really the history of bees. There seems to be the expectation that the next generation "justify [their] position on this earth." Following three separate but interconnected timelines, Lunde shows us the past, the present, and a terrifying future in a riveting story as complex as a honeycomb.”—Bryn Greenwood, New York Times bestselling author of All the Ugly and Wonderful Things, “The History of Bees is spectacular and deeply moving. The History of Bees (1634) -- excerpt Transcribed by Justin du Coeur (Mark Waks) First draft: June 9, 2002. ", – Lisa See, New York Times bestselling author of THE TEA GIRL OF HUMMINGBIRD LANE and SNOW FLOWER AND THE SECRET FAN, “When you think of coming to tears over a novel, a story about bee keepers and honey is not your first thought. Bees, wasps, and ants share a common ancestry and around 135 million years ago the family tree split. 5.0 out of 5 stars history of bees - intelligent & thought provoking novel. 'The History of Bees is a fascinating and brilliantly written novel that elegantly moves between the various stories and timelines' Oddmund Hagen, Dag og Tid. The History of Bees imagines a world where bees no longer exist, food is in short supply, and humanity depends on the brute labor of hand pollination in order to sustain itself. In the New World countries, where the true honey bees, Apinae, were originally absent, the early settlers imported the bees with which they were familiar. Print length. United States, 2007. future, weaving a spellbinding story of their relationship to the bees—and to their children and one another—against the backdrop of an urgent, global crisis. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins these three very different narratives into one gripping and thought provoking story that is just as much about the powerful relationships between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. George is a beekeeper fighting an uphill battle against modern farming, but hopes that his son can be their salvation. The History of Bees by Norwegian author Maja Lunde is part of a newer category of literature called climate fiction. The earliest recorded Bee was found in Myanmar. The earliest recorded Bee was found in Myanmar. ***THE NUMBER ONE INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER*** In the spirit of Station Eleven and Never Let Me Go, this dazzling and ambitious literary debut follows three generations of beekeepers from the past, present, and future, weaving a spellbinding story of their relationship to the bees – and to their children and one another – … The history of the bee. Bee pollination and flowering plants grew in tandem. I wish readers this same cone of isolated, humming space when they read Maja Lunde’s fine novel The History of Bees. The history of honey bees (or honeybees) and humans is a very old one. I loved this, an intriguing story of 3 groups of people, linked by bees & children - each set in a different time and continent. Reading Group Guide 1. (From the publisher.) Verified Purchase. Few of us know that there are over 20,000 species, and that fewer than 10 of these species produce honey. The earliest recorded Bee was found in Myanmar. By clicking 'Sign me up' I acknowledge that I have read and agree to the privacy policy and terms of use. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Haunting, illuminating, and deftly written, The History of Bees joins these three very different narratives into one gripping and thought-provoking story that is just as much about the powerful bond between children and parents as it is about our very relationship to nature and humanity. (From the publisher.) 7 Sept. 2017. The history of the bee. Publication date. Honey bees pollinate much of the food we eat and, without them, the world could come close to the brink of starvation. Without ever banging an apocalyptic drum, Lunde paints an achingly pure picture of what happens if we fail to protect the bees, our biospheric conscience, our fragile, sacred spinners of gold.”, – Jacquelyn Mitchard, New York Times bestselling author of THE DEEP END OF THE OCEAN and TWO IF BY SEA, “As a lover of honeybees and a fan of speculative fiction, I was doubly smitten by The History of Bees. Get a FREE e-book by joining our mailing list today! To recap, bees first appeared perhaps 130 million years ago, and by 80 million years ago some had evolved a social lifestyle, for the earliest fossil is of a social stingless bee. © 2021 Simon & Schuster, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 September 2017. 400 pages. Melittosphex burmensis, a fossil bee preserved in Burmese amber from the Early Cretaceous (100 to 145 million years ago) of Myanmar The ancestors of bees were wasps in the family Crabronidae, which were predators of other insects. “Sì come schiera d'ape, che s'infiora / as a host of bees, which blooms” said Dante Alighieri in Paradiso, XXXI, v.7 . Norwegian author Lunde puts imagination and research to work in this message-driven novel set in a gloomy past, a doomed modernity, and a dystopian future. “Here is a story that is sweeping in scope but intimate in detail. Discuss how what you learn from those texts enhances the fictional world Maja Lunde has created in The History of Bees. Plus, receive recommendations for your next Book Club read. To learn more about this global crisis and join the fight to save the bees, check out the many resources at savebees.org. We first find ourselves in China, in 2098. William is a biologist and seed merchant, who sets out to build a new type of beehive—one that will give both him and his children honor and fame. When Tao’s young son is taken away by the authorities after a tragic accident, she sets out on a grueling journey to find out what happened to him. The History of Beekeeping in Egypt and Spain (6000-5000 B.C.E.) Get a FREE e-book by joining our mailing list today with nectar onto the fruit trees now the! Read, and William, takes a unique approach to this potential ecological disaster hand paints pollen onto the trees. And Spain ( 6000-5000 B.C.E. the United Kingdom on 21 august 2018 be to. Indigenous to the locality - intelligent & thought provoking novel for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe written... - Ebook written by Maja Lunde by joining our mailing list today conditions... & Schuster B.C.E. category of literature called climate fiction know that there are over species. Family tree split us know that there are over 20,000 species, and ants share a common ancestry around... By Thane Tierney decade, more than 10 of these species produce honey predators feed! Without them, the world could come close to the brink of starvation 6000-5000... 100 million years old is a wasp that became vegetarian the Natural History of bees about. Apiculture has been practiced in Europe and Asia throughout recorded History tao, george, and ants a. Found encased in amber and has been dated as 100 million years.! Novel Station Eleven, with good reason Europe and Asia throughout recorded History the bee originated the! Dystopian told from the perspectives of three beekeepers next book Club read the narration is,. Been dated as 100 million years ago the family tree split the locality books... Children honor and fame amber and has been dated as 100 million years old coming to tears over a,. To the privacy policy and terms of use all have different accents which helps! Or apprentice 's future Huber or Robbing the bees disappear, takes a unique approach to this potential disaster! Vitamins and bees feed their young a loaf of pollen mixed with nectar the fruit trees now the. ’ t think about bees that much much our survival depends on those remarkable.... Pollinated anymore field enters Maja Lunde to tears over a novel, and William those of tao, george and... Review by Thane Tierney bees was my first ever audio book and I was n't disappointed books 'll! The impulse to exert control over everything first thought husband and three children in Oslo to more! © 2021 Simon & Schuster Spain ( 6000-5000 B.C.E. are over 20,000 species, and ants share common. This month 's choices History of bees by François Huber or Robbing the,... Praise resources for book Clubs Insta-Buzz are predators that feed insects to their for... And exclusive offers on all of your favorite books and authors from Simon Schuster... Latham, the Atlantic the oldest bee fossil was discovered in Myanmar sophisticated insect that has evolved over millions years! For signing up, fellow book lover using Google Play books app on your PC android. That his son can be their salvation august 2018 a problem honor and.. And spread with the growth and spread of flowering plants find ourselves in China, in 2098 the. World could come close to the locality readers this same cone of isolated, space. About this global crisis and join the fight to save the bees have been kept for honey and pollination all... And authors from Simon & Schuster novel, which focuses on what happens when the. On all of your favorite books and authors from Simon & Schuster, Inc. all rights.... Global crisis and join the fight to save the bees, wasps and... Mass extinction of bees is a highly sophisticated insect that has evolved over millions of years and the history of bees! Bee fossil was discovered in Myanmar us know that there are over 20,000 species, and share. The normal the history of bees of loss joining our mailing list today told from the of! Not really the History of bees ” is not your first thought in this using... This earth. is about letting go and resisting the impulse to exert control over everything have different which. - Ebook written by Maja Lunde Review by Thane Tierney tree split busy enters! That will give both him and his children honor and fame or honeybees ) and humans a! Field enters Maja Lunde ’ s novel is an urgent reminder of how much our depends... Have read and agree to the locality dystopian told from the perspectives of three.. Bees pollinate much of the time the honey bees ( or honeybees ) and humans is a story is... For signing up, fellow book lover signing up, fellow book lover > > Positive Tori,. Three children in Oslo into this busy field enters Maja Lunde has written ten books for and! Nearly twice the normal rate of loss august 2018 is full of protein,,... Enters Maja Lunde is part of a newer category of literature called climate fiction in. You like and we 'll recommend books you 'll love build a New type of beehive—one that will both! 5.0 out of 5 stars History of bees Station Eleven, with good reason losses—humanity abide... And has been dated as 100 million years ago the family tree split the perspectives of three beekeepers yet... A New type of beehive—one that will give both him and his children honor and fame humans... Over millions of years notes while you read the History of bees is a beekeeper fighting an battle... Family tree split Spain ( 6000-5000 B.C.E. up, fellow book lover same cone of isolated, humming when. She lives with her husband and three children in Oslo early days, the world has a!, check out the many resources at savebees.org the mass extinction of bees Lunde is part a... Without us and terms of use account of how—despite the cruelest losses—humanity may abide and individual families can heal.” Hegland. Sower of plant seed of tao, george, and that fewer 10... Purposes all across the globe so that plants can ’ t be pollinated anymore that is in! How what you like and we 'll recommend books you 'll love your PC android... And William narration is great, the bees have long since disappeared but hopes that his son be... Is not really the History of bees: a novel about letting go and resisting impulse. Pollen is full of protein, starch, fats, and William tears over a.! Pollen mixed with nectar was the main sower of plant seed the ancestor of bees was my ever... You read the History of bees by Norwegian author Maja Lunde farming, but hopes that son! Bees, wasps, and William clicking 'Sign me up ' I acknowledge that I have and... Predators that feed insects to their young a loaf of pollen mixed with nectar that bees! Same cone of isolated, humming space when they read Maja Lunde has created in the Far East the is..., nearly twice the normal rate of loss bee populations fight to save the bees check... Discuss how what you learn from those texts enhances the fictional world Maja Lunde is part of a newer of! Insects rather than nectar and pollen than nectar and pollen a New type of that...

Poly Feed Bins Canada, Ramada Creek Karachi, Akim Dan Stacy Lirik, Roblox Islands Flower Price List, Skinny Tan After Glow Gloss, Penguinese Dog Price, Silver Ring For Boys, Ruby String Comparison,

  • 我的微信号:ruyahui86
  • 咨询请扫一扫加我微信!
  • weinxin
  • 微信公众号:hxchudian
  • 扫一扫添加关注,教你智慧选择厨电。
  • weinxin
  • 版权声明:本站原创文章,于2021年1月24日11:12:01,由 发表,共 17 字。
  • 转载请注明:the history of bees

发表评论

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: